The USA-The Parent and Devil of the Terrorism

Terrorists and Rebellions- these two words describe your views about a particular group operating in some area. If you are liking the activities of the group, that group will be rebellion group for you working against the authorities for the cause which you think is right but if you are against the activities of that group, then you will term that  group as a terrorist group.
The biggest example of this differentiation is given by America for the same group operating in the Afghanistan during 90s and as a fraction now-The Taliban.
 After the disintegration of the Soviet Union the newly emerged Central Asian countries witnessed the resurgence of Islam based extremist groups especially in the Fergana Valley. The emergence of radical Islam was of great concern for the Central Asian countries as for almost seven decades of Soviet rule such forces never posed this kind of political challenge. The break-up of the Soviet Union resulting in disappearance of socialist ideology created ideological vacuum, which in the absence of any other viable mass ideology had the chances of being filled by religious orientations.
Soon Central Asian countries had whole lot of Islamic missionaries from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and other parts of the globe. The short-sighted and hard-line policies of regimes in Central Asia, in the absence of effective democratic channels, helped Islamic forces to grow. By 1996 the indigenous Islamic elements got linked up with Afghanistan based Islamic forces. Initially the assertion of Islamic forces was not taken alarmingly by the outside world because Tajik civil war (1992-96), in addition to Islamic groups, was also waged by secular and nationalist elements. Even the US perception of Tajik civil war was that it was power struggle among regional clans; that it was maneuvered by Russia for justifying its military presence in Central Asia; that the Islamic forces of Afghanistan were not keen in penetrating Central Asia and that Taliban was indigenous outfit not having any regional agenda. (Tackling Terrorist Turmoil: 9/11and its aftermath-World Focus-  Dr. Kuldip Singh)
At that time these radical Islamic groups were like rebellions working against the Soviet Union, as it was in favor of USA. America didn’t bother about the evil effects of these groups. Even the Uyghurs were supported by China against Soviet Union.
Similarly, NATO, whose leader is America didn’t like the dictator of Libya. During the period of Arab Springs, people of Libya revolted against Gadaffi. NATO helps the people to throw away the rule of Gadaffi–killed. After the death of Gadaffi, USA did nothing to ensure a democratic setup in the country. An ideological vacuum was created and there were high chances that this vacuum may also get filled by the Islamic radicals that were not much active during Gadaffi. Four years after Muammar Gaddafi was killed, the high hopes of Libya’s activists have crumbled as ISIS fills the vacuum left by scrapping militias.
Similarly, America used NATO against Syria, and in the civil war- ISIS emerges in the Syria also. American  war on Iraq also resulted in the spread of ISIS in Iraq.
It can be seen that in all the cases where there was the birth of radical Islamic organizations, America had done something in that area.
Now the devil nature of USA– a real twist happened following 9/11 incidents when the US declared war on terrorism unilaterally telling the world that Osama-bin-Laden is accused of engineering bombing of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 he was now declared to be the main culprit for 11 September 2001attacks on the US. The group once used by the USA against Soviet Union now was declared terrorist groups. . At this point of time the US was so determined to defeat the forces of terrorism that it did not strictly adhere to the established UN principle of making a case for the war to be waged and therefore, did not deem it necessary to put credible evidence for the justification of the war before the world. And the world due to US hegemony extends full support to USA against this illegal war (according to rules of UNSC). India which was the supporter of the democratic form of Security Council and that has always advocated the idea that no international war be declared without full facts and proofs also extends full support to USA.
And now the creator of ISIS, is engaged in the war to destroy it in Syria and Iraq.
Due to unilateral world system, American hegemony is seen to large extent. If America is so concerned with the peace of world, then why there is full support to Saudi Arabia by the USA- which is supporter of radical Islamic  organizations in the world. Just because America wants to sell its weapons!

American theory is- First provide full weapon support and then if they are threat to “only America” then destroy them using NATO.
Sunday, 28 May 2017
Posted by Pareekshit Vaid


The debate on the UCC started sounding faster late in the 1980s with the Shah Bano Case and the Congress government enacted the Muslim Women(Protection of Rights on divorce) Act, 1986 under the pressure of the Muslim Orthodoxy. But the debate on UCC was taking place even much earlier than this when the Indian govt. under Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru re-codified personal lives of Hindus in 1956 which was a welcome step by the Hindu community even in some hatred voices against it. But this act was seen as communal on the part of government as only Hindus lives were re-coded and the Muslims were left stating that they were not ready for a change! and these acts were actually communal on the part of a Secular country and secular stating government.

A Famous socialist JB Kriplani had said ,"I charge you with communalism because you are bringing forward a law about monogamy only for the Hindu community. You must bring it for Muslim community. Take it from me that the Muslim community is prepared to have it but you are not brave enough to do it. "

On January 26, 1950, India enforced its constitution, which had in Article 44 which mandated the Union government to strive for a uniform civil code  for its citizens. The first trickery happened when article 44 was included in the directive principles chapter of constitution, which meant that though it would be the guiding principle of every government, no citizen could move court to enforce it as a matter of right stating "the state shall Endeavour to secure for its citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India"
And everyone knows that the political class can use any single word for its vote purpose! Same happens with the directive principle. The word "shall Endeavour" played all the game and the Indian politicians use this word as a sword to defend the orthodox of Muslim community in order to keep them happy for vote bank and never talked about maintaining Uniform Civil Code. Even the supreme Court of India did nothing binding to the constitution.

The Supreme court once said "It is also a matter of regret that Article 44 of our Constitution has remained a dead latter. There is no evidence of any official activity for framing a common civil code for the country. A common civil code will help the cause of national integration by removing disparate loyalties to laws which have conflicting ideologies. No community is likely to bell the cat by making gratuitous concessions on this issue."
which clearly states that it is state's responsibility to secure a uniform civil code for  the country. No religious community will come forward  and will say that change the laws of our community!

But in the past 70 years of Indian Independence no steps have been taken for framing a uniform civil code.

Recent discussions about the uniform civil code have started with the Law Commission questionnaire on Uniform civil code to which Muslim Personal Board have boycotted stating that this is interference in their personal lives.
In a recent question to a UP based politician about his views on the UCC he said let us leave it on the religious community board. Is it correct?? If this is correct what is need of politicians and what is the need of government and what is the need of Parliament? This clearly states that now the Parliament has become a place not to discuss about the problems of the people but to keep happy the religious orthodoxies to secure vote bank and to earn money by amending the DAs etc of the politicians. I clearly state this as the black era of the Indian parliament. People have chosen MPs and MLAs and it is their duty to discuss the problem of the people of the country not the duty of the religious babas or maulvis. They will definitely work for defending the ways that help them to keep in the publicity and earn money.

Politicians keep talking about the women empowerment at the time of elections, now what? where is their concern for the women empowerment! Has it lost somewhere in the battlefield to protect religious orthodoxies?
Think for some time that we left this decision on the religious communities, but what about women empowerment? Is there any women representation in these so called leagues ? How can we think that these will provide security to women?

We live in the century where open minds are taking shapes. People are concerned about their freedom. The irony is that we don't consider women to be part of these people! UCC is not just about women security or triple talaq, it is also important for a country having wide diversity, cultures to unite them in a single thread with the help of this powerful weapon.
Not only a single community law but all the community laws should be banned when talking about whole country and to respect someone's identity. The global indexes and the numbers given by various world forums are low for India because although our constitution provide security to all but the religious laws discriminate and police and court gets bounded to these religious laws which are recognized by the same constitution.

Also if talking about the special status states, like north-east states opposition to the UCC, I really think that the people of North-East are more patriotic, they really have true patriotism. Every national want to see his country United, peaceful and without any discrimination. It is only possible with UCC as it will disable laws that differentiate people from people.

At last I can say that the world is changing. It is time of the hour to move up of these so called religious laws and frame a common code for common people because it is only method for development of the economy and unity of country at global level.
Saturday, 29 October 2016
Posted by Pareekshit Vaid

The Rise of Jantar Mantar

Today I was thinking about a very popular thing: Jantar Mantar, not in context to the real jantar mantar but related to something new to which we can relate in today’s era. But before discussing about a thing I always try to analyse its history. So let us grab a quick recap of Jantar Mantar.

We popularly recognize jantar mantar as place of doing dharna, historical piece located in delhi, but jantar mantar has great history (scientific and astronomical) attached to it.

There are 5 Jantar Mantar Monuments in India located in New Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi, Mathura, Ujjain. Largest one is in Jaipur.  The jantars have names like Samrat Yantra, Jai Prakash, Ram Yantra and Niyati Chakra, each of which are used to for various astronomical calculations. These astronomical observatories were built Sawai Jai Singh II in around 1724.
Time Indication of sundial
But why these observatories were built? As History is all about interpretation, so according to me there is only reason to build these and that is Curiosity. It is curiosity of human mind which led to creation of these tools to measure the universal acts.

Anyways what’s the present scenario? The Jantar Mantar’s have become a place of doing protests.
We hear periodic news of protest being conducted there. But no, Jantar Mantar are not just peice of ancient site or place of doing protest. Jantar Mantar is more than this. Jantar mantar is an idea which is helping humans to evolve. The idea which fills future with advancements.

Did not get what i am talking about?

I am talking about the technology we are using and the more advanced tech which we'll be using tomorrow. 

Lets me explain. The present tech is mainly based upon two main things: 
1. Hardware  2.Software.
Now consider, Jantar as hardware part(Equipment, Tools etc. ) and Mantar as the power behind the hardware i.e the logic, software, science which gives power to the Jantar. So it becomes Jantar and Mantar. This word has nothing relative to my interest but it's an idea in which we live in. 
It is really interesting to thing this human evolution with an idea of Jantar And Mantar (The indefinite future).

"Jantar Mantar Rocks"


Thursday, 6 October 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma

Quick startup guide for your first website Part-1

So you are thinking of building your first website, but not getting a start. No problem this post will get you through the basic set up for your first web project.

Setting Up tools:

As we know that good workman is known by his Tools...therefore it is essential to have some basic tools to increase your productivity. In field of web development tools are basically a text editor, well we have notepad, text edit like inbuilt tools in our pc and mac. But they are not so flexible and extensible in terms of experience and looks too. So to write a beautiful code I would recommend the following text editors:

1.    Atom (1st favourite):
Launched in 2008, GitHub has become the code storage and development site of choice worldwide, and so any tool it releases is going to cause a big stir. That's certainly been the case with Atom. Dubbed "a hackable text editor for the 21st Century", it's designed to be simple to use out of the box, but also easily expandable using hundreds of packages. Since launching in invite-only private beta early last year, it's now fully open source and available to download for free.
Atom has got many features and best in its class.

2.    Brackets (2nd favourite) 
Adobe's open-source text editor is created from the code that builds the web, and the developers note that if you can code in Brackets, then you can code on Brackets. In other words, although you initially get a simple, usable editor, seasoned programmers should be able to hack it to their liking.


3.    Sublime Text (Not my favourite but ok for a beginner)

4.    Many more search internet (you can use Visual Studio Also)

ParaZzDevTips: After you have downloaded the text editors, just go through their themes and configuration set up according to your likes. (like font-size, extendibility, readability etc. And make it ergonomic to your brain. (because if you will be comfortable with what you doing then only you will get good ideas)

Grab up the browsers: 

Also make sure that you have modern web browser installed on your pc (Mozilla and chrome you should have both for web page testing).

ParaZzDevTips: It should be great if you learn basics of development tools that is equipped with browser… to enhance error-testing and your productivity.

Setting Up Directory Architecture:

When you are done with basic environment setup, next task is to set up files architecture.  Means what type of structure your website should have.
I would recommend using following directory structure:
The most common things we'll have on any website project we create are an index HTML file and folders to contain images, style files, and script files. Let's create these now:
1. index.html: This file will generally contain your homepage content, that is, the text and images that people see when they first go to your site. Using your text editor, create a new file called index.html and save it just inside your test-site folder.
This Basic Files Architecture should be followed for basic website 
2.     images folder: This folder will contain all the images that you use on your site. Create a folder called images, inside your site folder.
3.  styles folder: This folder will contain the CSS code used to style your content (for example, setting text and background colors). Create a folder called styles, inside site folder.
4.   scripts folder: This folder will contain all the JavaScript code used to add interactive functionality to your site (e.g. buttons that load data when clicked). Create a folder called scripts, inside your test-site folder.

In my next part I will discuss about the html, CSS, JS basics=> required for quick web setup.  

Happy Designing_ParaZz

Saturday, 28 May 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma

What's life?

I was Wondering for week or a two…. Just thinking some random stuff, the thing that struck me was 


According to me if you ask... My life is full of ‘STRUGGLES’.  From generation to generation it has been passed on. From my great great Grandpa to me…. We have seen only struggles in order to achieve peace.  ALSO, peace doesn’t depend on your life, “IT’S THE INTEGRATED EXPERIENCE OF SOCIAL LIFE “

But it can become “INTEGRATED EXPERIENCE OF PERSONAL LIFE”.  Have time? Come I’ll explain to you if you are free!!    Whoops we are going out of our topic.
Whenever I see my DAD and Granddad … I feel like achieving things they wished they could have achieved, to have life they wish they would have been living today, to change the root of our family they wished they could have done.


At night of 10 pm while chatting with one of my friend (who happens to live abroad) I just asked how she could define life in her own poise

LIFE is happiness that when she gets back home from work and her nephew is there to open the door to hug her tight, to give her relief and take away all the tiredness that she carries in her eyes. Life is that happiness when her mom calls her from 7 seas apart and tells her every day, she trusts her and that she’s the best child.  Life is the thing that made her parents let go of her at tender age to be on her own in a country to make her life better, THAT TRUST.
Life is when she receives text from her old buds!

AND THEN THE PUNCHING LINE SHE GAVE (one should learn to adapt this kind of attitude):



Despite from the struggles you are going through and the positive mindset you are maintaining…

The above write-up is written by M Karan Kaushal (one of my friend) and is based upon true story.
Monday, 23 May 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma
Tag :

Random Numbers Table

My Experiments with JavaScript
The following random number Table is built by using JS DOM. Check Out The Source Here.
Fun With JS
Friday, 20 May 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma

Random Color Table

My Experiments with JavaScript
The following random Color Table is built by using JS DOM. Check Out The Source Here.
Click On alpha beta gamma to experience the changing colors.
CheckOut Next >>
Fun With JS
Posted by Paras Sharma

The Rise of Culture

Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. Culture is practically the systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people. Culture is communication, communication is culture. Practically Culture is a collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.
From where the thing called Culture started? The process of culture might have originated in the age when human beings started to live in communities, groups etc. They might have started making rules for themselves and their community to make their life better.
But how human acquired culture? It’s all due to human behaviour. It’s the behaviour of human being to do everything in a planned way and something done in past by following some set of rules becomes culture in future. There are many factors that initiated culture. The factors are: surroundings, geographical locations, resources economical, political conditions etc. These whole factors initiated the rise of culture. So finally we can say that culture is the collection of the thoughts, views and experiences of the peoples from the ancient times to present time.

Culture brings differences too. Culture affects the human behaviour to a great extent.  Culture brings differences in the thoughts between the communities. All communities sharing different cultures differ in many things. Culture effects human behaviour in following ways:
1.     Language
2.     Clothing ( based upon geographical location)
3.     Food ( based upon food resources available)
4.     Thoughts ( based upon experiences)
And culture is also of many types. The culture can be political, institutional, patriotic, regional, religious, social, digital etc. Culture makes people different but also preaches many things, and by analysing that whole past cultural experience these countries can learn new things. Countries having so much diverse culture have plenty of things to learn. People of culturally diverse countries need to learn from the past experiences and think about future. This is only going to make their and their fellow citizens life better and better.
Also as the time changes culture should also be changed and all new culture should be set up. This will result in better function of the society.

Take inspirations from past, Apply it in present to make your future better. 

Sunday, 24 April 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma

Warmth of a chill mountain

Warmth of a chill mountain







Posted by Paras Sharma
Tag :

Paving out the way through spiritual physics!

Physics, Spiritualism and Hoax Freedom

We talk about freedom but do we actually know it’s true meaning. Nowadays no one believes anything without scientific facts. So let’s use physics to actually know what freedom means in science in spite of its constitutional definition.

While thinking about freedom, the first fact that my mind captures is the “motion of free particle”: which means or relate to free particle motion which is not under any influence of external force or factor. 

In accordance to the above fact, it can be concluded that there can be no freedom to us. In the materialistic world freedom just remains a hoax, mere a thing of misinterpretation. Just a have a quick think. How can human thoughts, emotions, action, body be free? As they all are being influenced by external factors.

·        Our thoughts are influenced by other people thoughts, motivation, inspiration etc.
·        Our action is full of purpose, expression is bounded by societies external factor and then also we say we are free.

Where is thing which makes us free? Is there anything?

Let's be optimistic, let's attain freedom. So what is real freedom? Real freedom is truth which emerges from the inner soul. Attain freedom of action by performing action without a purpose. Freedom of speech is about speaking words of truth. Freedom of life is to achieve one goal with action done with full dedication and that goal is true realization. 
Tuesday, 29 March 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma
Tag :

Racist Indians

First of all I hope that I don't get arrested due to this article as a result of sedition. We talk about racism with Indians in U.S., Australia and many other countries. But first of all we need to look upon what we are doing in our country.

I believe racism is in our culture. Let me take an instance. The college in which I am pursuing my degree has students from different states. We Punjabis are treating students from other states especially U.P. and Bihar very badly. We call them Bihari rather than their names. I know I was also involved in it only to have regret it later. Recently racism with Tanzanian girl in Bengaluru has hit the news.

Cause of racism:

India is a country where Mr. Shahrukh Khan is telling to make a fairness cream as your humsafar.
Not just him there are many more actors and cricketers.

First of lets see from where all these things get started. As I have said earlier racism is in our culture. I have seen small children playing in park being involved in this. Parents teach racism to their children. Kids grab what they see without knowing what is right and what's wrong and as they grow it becomes difficult to change them. We can say a desire arises to exploit other people.

If we talk about India, reservation leads to racism. As we are having SC/ST/Backward quota, so people see them accordingly.


Well some of us may think educating people will resolve the issue but as said earlier racism is prevalent in educational institutes. Don't get me wrong, we do need education. But education alone will not save the purpose. We know it is immoral but how many of us think it before being racist. We have to broaden up our thinking because that is where it is stuck. We need to come out of our ill mentality. 

Speak up whenever you see someone involved in racism. Just ask him/her where is the need of racism. What is the benefit which he/she getting from being racist?

Secondly what I think is reservation need to be regularized. Rather than castes reservation should be on the basis of income. I will cover this topic in my coming article.

At the end I would like to say that racism will not give you food to eat or shelter to live, the only thing which it will give you in return is racism. India has a large diversity of religions. People change here from region to region in terms of thinking, beliefs, practices, color and many other aspects. It becomes our moral duty to respect all of them, after all they all are humans.


Share your views below in comments. 

Monday, 22 February 2016
Posted by Unknown

Facebook's Free basic is dead. Who should mourn?

Yes! FreeBasic is Dead in India. TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) dumped facebook's free basics in India. What led to it and to whom it is big loss. This write-up will discuss about all that.

Freebasic has been on controversial stand from its date of launch. The debate over this issue was going on from a long time (more than a year). Freebasic was launched in India on February 10, 2015 as

With the launch of InternetDotOrg it got entrapped in the sqaubble of net-neutrality, terming it as against the internet freedom. Number of campaigns were put in action both by digital revolutionaries in against as well as favour of freebasic and with no doubt, it's big win for the digital revoutionaries who opposed it. 

My inquest is that who is on the downside, whose gonna suffer this concept death? Definitely it's facebook but is it only facebook? 

"Think upon it and if you cannot think let me make you think."

The's Concept

To understand the whole scenario, it's essential to know about the fb's concept. 
According to the facebook, mission is to connect the people in remotest of remote areas with internet (basic essential information) and give them the power of internet.

That is only the mission. What is controversial? Is not it good to provide the power of internet to internet deprived section? So from where the controversy started, who started and why? Let's analyse it and extract optimism.

The Net Neutrality Quarell (Airtel 0 to facebook). 

When Airtel in 2015 announced it's zero rating plan, a huge protest was carried out claiming it against internet freedom. Later on was also brought under scanner in a fear that it may violate net neutrality.

Who protested and why?

During the period of protest many campaigns came into existence in against to freebasic. Side by side people were enjyong the freebasic on reliance network too. 
I also got my hands on the service and it was very efficient, helpful. The facebook just provided the basic information, news etc. things that are very essential to live a better lifestyle and the service was absoultely free. It was also the platrform for people having ideas but no resources.

But according to protesters it was against net neutrality. Providing access to the internet deprived people, connecting the whole country was against net neutrality according to them. 
Major protestor strength included tech experts, students, academicians. But how can be all they wrong if freebasic was right. 
I think in actual the whole controversy was not for saving the internet but saving the own interest. The protestors just thought about their work and scrutnizing it as it was getting affected by freebasic instead of thinking about the people who all are not connected to the world because if they might have thought of them then freebasic must be alive.

Who should mourn?

Facebook:The freebasic service was being used by over 8 lac people in India. And free basic was huge potential for them. But I think this service will not effect them, and they will continue their mission to connect the world with more innovative ideas.

India:I ndia lost the thing that was very important in empowering the people of India. I think it was the platform that could have given wings to the dreams of resources deprived people. 

The Internet Saviours:
Those who protested against it without giving alternate solution to the problem should also know that they are not only the internet operators in india. Just think about the people who don't have access to the internet, about the people who have ideas, dreams but no resources. Was that not a humble start in giving their dreams wings.

And if these so called "the saviours of intenet" think that freebasic was not on the mark, then why don't they thought for an alternate solution instead.

Wrap Up
In conclusion i would say that there is a great need to increase the access of resouces to the derprived people. And moreover protesting without giving any alternate solution is vain, instead if you think something is not right, then make it right (don't kill). JAIHIND

Please give a your thought in comment section below and Keep Reading more interesting Articles
Sunday, 21 February 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma
Tag :

The God Theory #1

In the present world, we cannot believe anything without science. To believe we need reasons and conceptions. Same is the case of god. Some says god is unreal and some says that god is merely an imagination.

This manuscript will show you the meaning of god from scientific angle and make you realize what actually a God is, away from the religious context!

The Evolution!

We studied about human evolution but have you ever wondered how god evolved over time. Yes, I am talking about the evolution of god. As human beings started developing, their thoughts also progressed and they started to get better understanding on things. In history we see that ancient Greek, Egypt they treated the physical things like thunder, wind, sun as their gods and god took the place of many things (from symbolic to spiritual). So what we observe that, the idea of god is evolving as the time is moving.

The idea of God always changed over time!

As the ideas of human mind have evolved, the Gods have also evolved. But the question arises that...............
Are these ideas all true?  
We see that man's ideas about God are constantly changing and expanding. But what is god?Is it only the manifestation of human mind? Yes god that we know is only the unreal manifestation. Because our ideas have evolved over time, so the gods too have evolved but the real god is immovable, unchangeable, pure and always perfect and in the same way the idea we form of god is a mere manifestation, our own creation.

Through this i do not mean that there is no god, but  behind all these things I believe that there is a real god who never changes, the ever pure, the immutable.

So as the manifestation is always changing, revealing the reality behind more and more.

Thus as we grow, so the god's grow !

From ordinary point of view, as we reveal ourselves or as we evolve, so the gods evolve themselves too. 

To be continued.................

- by ParaZz

Friday, 29 January 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma
Tag :

Poem-Whisper Of My Dream


I Wish I Could Whisper My Dream,
I Wish I Could Dream A Whisper.

Dream To Fly High Like An Eagle,
Or To Think Like A Birbal.
Dream To Eat An Ice-Cream,
Or To Meet Mr. Bean.

Ha Ha………..

I Think It’s Not So Funny,
As My Dream Makes Me Feel Like Bunny.
Running Out For A Luxury,
But Lastly It All Gets Churney.

And Finally I Dream A Whisper!!



Tuesday, 12 January 2016
Posted by Paras Sharma
Tag :


Cryptography basically means making and breaking code. It is a practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties. In modern times cryptography has got its applications in ATM, passwords, E-commerce etc.
But from where it originated? To learn about that let’s go back in the past. We get the trace of first crypto science in ancient India during 683 CE. Also ancient Egypt, China, Greeks were also profound in crypto science

An Example of Ancient Cryptography:

            Gopibhagya madhuvrata srngisodadhisandhiga I
Khalajivitakhatava galahalarasandhara II
This shloka, a hymn to Lord Krishna or Shiva, gives the value of pi upto 31 decimal places. 
ga - 3 pii - 1 bhaa - 4 gya - 1 ma - 5 dhu - 9 ra - 2 ta -6 shru - 5 ga - 3 sho - 5 da - 8 dhi - 9 sa - 7 dha - 9ga - 3 kha - 2 la - 3 jii - 8 vi - 4 ta - 6 kha - 2 ta - 6 va - 4 ga - 3 la - 3 ra - 2 sa - 7 dha - 9 ra – 2

pi = 3.1415926535897932384626433832792

Katapayadi system is used to encode numbers in many shlokas
To remember the value of pi upto 31 decimal places cryptography techniques were used by Ancient India.

Over two thousand years ago, Roman Emperor Julius Caesar invented a simple cipher system to send secret messages to his officers in the field. The Caesar Cipher shifts the alphabet forward three places to create a new alphabet for sending secret messages.
Standard Alphabet:
Caesar Alphabet:
EXAMPLE: The message THE ENEMY IS NEAR would be written
QEB BKBJV FP KBXO using the Caesar Cipher system.

Modern Cryptography
As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data.
In modern days cryptography has become securing information from an eve. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that block Eve (or adversaries); various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.

To understand the modern Cryptography we need to understand some of the terms:

 Cipher: A mapping algorithm that is applied to a fixed number of characters at a time with an intent of concealing the contents of the message.

Code: A mapping algorithm that is applied to a variable number of characters (according to linguistic entities) at a time with intent of concealing the contents of the message.

Cryptanalysis: The study of methods of reading enciphered and encoded messages without original knowledge of the cipher method used or the current keys.

Cryptography: The study of methods of enciphering and deciphering messages to conceal the contents of a message.

Cryptology: The study of both cryptography (enciphering and deciphering) and cryptanalysis (breaking or cracking a code system or individual messages).

Deciphering: The procedure of turning enciphered text into plain text with prior knowledge of the algorithms or keys involved. This is what the intended message receiver does.

Decryption: The science of turning enciphered text into plain text without prior knowledge of the algorithms or keys involved. This is what the interceptor or 'cracker' does.

Modern Cryptography can be divided into many types:

           Secret key cryptography: All codes are a bit like padlocks. You "lock" your message, the message travels to its destination, and then the recipient "unlocks" it and reads it. But not all codes work the same way.
Suppose you're an agent working in New Delhi, India and you need to send a message to another agent in Mumbai, India. The best way to do it is for the two of you to meet up in advance, in person, and agree on a method of locking and unlocking all the messages you'll send and receive in future. This method is called a secret key, because only the two of you will have access to it. The secret key could be something like "Replace every letter in the message with another letter three further on in the alphabet."
So, to send the message "HELLO" to your contact in Rome, you simply move each letter three forward, which gives you "KHOOR." When the person at the other end gets the message, he simply has to move each letter back three positions in the alphabet to find out what you're really saying. In this case, the key isn't a piece of metal you poke in a lock: it's the method of cracking the code by shifting the letters. Real secret keys are obviously much more complex and sophisticated than this.

Flowchart Explaining Encryption

                                       wi-fi Password Encryption (WPA-PSK)
This way of securing information is also called PSK (pre-shared key) and in some circumstances it's very effective. It's widely used to secure wireless Internet networks, for example. When you set up a secure wireless network, you're asked to choose a secret key (effectively, a password) that's known to both your wireless router (your main local access point to the Internet) and to any portable computers that need to use it. When you're using wireless Internet, you may notice that your connection is encrypted with something called WPA-PSK (Wi-Fi Protected Access-Pre-Shared Key). If you try to log onto a new wireless network and you're asked for a password, what you're really supplying is a secret key that will be used to encrypt and decrypt all the messages that pass back and forth.

Although secret (pre-shared) keys are effective and secure for things like this, they're not at all useful in other situations—like sending secure messages to people you've never met. That's because they rely on your knowing and meeting the person you're communicating with in advance to exchange the secret key. What if you can't do that? What if you want to exchange secure information with someone you've never met—someone who could be on the opposite side of the world? That's exactly the problem you have when you're paying for things online.

Public-key Encryption:

In that case, you can use a different system called public-key cryptography, which is how online encryption works. The basic idea is simple.
Each person has two keys, one called a public key and one called a secret key. Each "key" is actually a long, meaningless string of numbers—nothing like a metal key you'd use to open and close a door lock. The public key is something you can share with anyone, while the secret key is something you must keep private. Suppose you want to send a message to a friend using public key cryptography. You use their public key (which they've freely shared with the world) to encrypt the message and turn it into gibberish. You email the scrambled message to them over the Internet and when they receive it they use their secret key to decrypt (unscramble) and read it.

Public-key cryptography: Anyone can encrypt a message and send it to you (using your public key), but only you can read it (using your secret key).

Friday, 18 December 2015
Posted by Paras Sharma
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